Car Traffic Simulation Application

In the Fall quarter of 2013 at DePaul University, I wrote the Car Traffic Simulation Application as the final project for the class SE450 – Object-Oriented Software Development. The purpose of this project was to apply the studied object-oriented design principles and patterns throughout the quarter. The professor provided the class with start-up code from which each student can build his solution. I chose to discard that code completely and design and build my own solution from scratch. The reason why I did this was because I believe while still being a student, every opportunity possible to learn something and write as much code as possible must be taken.

I started by designing and implementing a framework on top of Java with which I can build any simulation application. Then I used that framework to build the car simulation. I also wrote an extensive design document with UML diagrams, fully documented all the code in a Java-doc style documentation, and extensively wrote unit tests for the framework that I built.

Nine design patterns were used in the implementation of the application. They helped making the code very organized, minimal, and data driven. Those design patterns were:

  • The command design pattern.
  • The singleton design pattern.
  • The strategy design pattern.
  • The state design pattern.
  • The static factory design pattern.
  • The template method design pattern.
  • The null object design pattern.
  • The visitor design pattern.
  • The observer design pattern.

The below video demonstrates the application.

Easy4PHPUnit: Easy 4 Steps PHP Unit Testing Framework

I’m fascinated a lot by the power and confidence that unit testing gives to the software developer. We use unit testing in all of my classes assignments, and I can’t imagine my life without them. I’m not a web developer, but I like to play around with different programming languages to make sure that any new concepts I learn or any new skills I acquire are transferable to any area regardless of the programming language that I use. That’s why I started writing this very basic unit testing framework in PHP just as personal educational exercise. Now I would like to share it with anyone who might find it useful and wants either to use it or learn something from it.

Note: Demo video is available at the end of this post if you prefer to watch the quick tutorial.
The GitHub repo link is available at the end of the post as well.

Framework Architecture

Easy4PHPUnit UML Diagram

Easy4PHPUnit UML Diagram

The simplicity of this framework is reflected in the simplicity of its architecture. The above UML is not meant to reflect every bit of code  in the framework, but it gives the big picture. The heart of this framework is the singleton class TestContainer, which stores a number of tests (instances of concrete derived classes from the abstract class TestCase). Those tests will eventually be run when the runAll() method is invoked, and any test failures will be added to a list of Failure instances that TestContainer manages, so that it can report those failures at the end of the test.

The abstract TestCase class has a constructor that automatically adds itself to the list of tests managed by TestContainer. So all that needs to be done is to write a concrete class that extends TestCase and implements its abstract method run(). This concrete class will represent a test case to be run, its run() method is where the unit test code should be added. The unit test code should use TestCase‘s protected methods check_equal() and check_float_equal(). Those methods will check for the equality of an expected and an actual value, and will automatically register a failure if any.

Obviously those two unit testing methods (check_equal() and check_float_equal()) are not enough, and hence TestCase needs to be extended with many more methods that do more sorts of tests, and that’s where the framework needs improvement.

If there are any failures, they will be conveniently reported with their file name(s) and line numbers as shown below:

Easy4PHPUnit Tests Results

Easy4PHPUnit Tests Results

The 4 Easy Steps

1 – Create a PHP File To Hold Your Tests

You can have multiple files as well, with each having a bunch of related test cases. In the beginning of each file require the TestIncludes.php file.

require_once 'TestIncludes.php';

2 – Create One or More Concrete Classes That Extend TestCase And Implement Its run() Method

Each concrete class represents a test case. The actual unit test code is inside your implementation of the run() method. run() must use the unit testing methods of TestCase (check_equal() and check_float_equal()) or any other similar methods you might have extended TestCase with.

class FloatingPointTest1 extends TestCase
     public function run()
         $float1 = 0.003;
         $float2 = 0.00302;
         $this->check_float_equal($float1, $float2);

3 – For Each Concrete TestCase Class You Created, Instantiate It

Instantiate the concrete classes you just created, so that the constructor of the abstract base class TestCase will add that test case to the list on the TestContainer.

$t1 = new FloatingPointTest1();

4 – Run The Tests

Go to the run.php file and require any PHP files that you created previously to hold your concrete test case classes and their instances. run.php automatically calls the runAll() method of the TestContainer class. Just execute this run.php file and the tests will be run and their results will be reported.

require_once 'TestIncludes.php';
require_once 'MyTestCase.php';

The code is well documented and is easy to follow. It is available at the following GitHub repository.

Easy4PHPUnit on GitHub

I also recorded a quick demo video to demonstrate the framework for those who like videos. Here you go:

Thank you everyone, and I hope you liked it.

Building And Integrating CppUnitLite in Eclipse on Linux

For this tutorial, I will be demonstrating how to build and integrate the lightweight C++ Unit Testing Framework, CppUnitLite, into your eclipse projects. I will be using Eclipse Juno on Xubuntu, but the same can be done on any other platform of your choice.

If you are familiar with CppUnit, CppUnitLite is – as the website mentions – more barebones, lighter, and more portable as it avoids using some C++ features such as exceptions, and templates.

We will build it as a static library, so that we can then link into any of our projects that we would like to write unit tests for later.

First, we need to get the source code form the CppUnitLite website. Go there and get it. Once you do, extract the zip file. You’ll find that it contains a lot of files and a couple of folders. We only need a sub-set of those, specifically the folders in the CppUnitLite sub-folder highlighted in the below screen shot.

Needed Files

Now go ahead and open up Eclipse. Select File > New > C++ Project.

New C++ Project Menu

From the C++ Project Window, name your project CppUnitLite, and make sure you selected a Static Library project type. Now click on Next >.

Static Library

For the build configuration, you can just select Debug for now. Then click Finish.

Build Configuration

You are now ready to import the source files. Right-click the project and click Import … from the menu.


From the Import window, select General > File System as the import source. Then click Next >.

Import Source

From the next window, click on the Browse button, and navigate to the folder where the needed CppUnitLite sources (highlighted at the top of this post) are located. Now select only the needed files. Make sure NOT to select the two sub-folders Cpp and CppUnitTests. When you’re done, click Finish.

Import Files

Now before we build, I hope you noticed on their website that they have this important note about a bug in the CHECK_EQUAL macro, and the revised one has been provided. This macro is located in the file Test.h. Copy the correct one from the website, and paste over the wrong one in the file.


CHECK_EQUAL Correction

Now Build the project. This will create a sub-folder named Debug under your project. If you take a look inside it, you’ll find a file named libCppUnitLite.a. This is the static library file that you would want to link in your projects later.


Library File

Now we’re done with building the library, and we need to experiment with it to write some simple unit tests. For demonstration purposes, we will create a new project, import the library, and the header files of CppUnitLite there, and write some simple unit tests just to show how things work. Create a new C++ project, and make sure the project type is Executable this time. Name the project whatever you want. I named it TestCppUnitLite. Now click Finish.

Test Project

We will create a sub-folder under this project in which we will import the CppUnitLite library and header files shortly. Right-click on the project name and select New > Source Folder. Name the folder CppUnitLite.

Source Folder Menu

Now right-click on that newly created folder, and select Import. From the Import window, as shown above, select General > File System as the import source and click Next >. Click the Browse button and navigate to the folder where we built the library. Once you do that select only the library file (libCppUnitLite.a) from the list and click finish.

Import Library

Repeat exactly the same above mentioned process again to import the header files. Just browse to where they are and import them into the same folder. You’ll need to import 6 header files namely Test.h, TestHarness.h, TestResult.h, TestRegistry.h, SimpleString.h, and Failure.h. Then click Finish.

Import Headers

Now it’s time to write some simple code. Right-click on the project name, and click New > Source File. Name the file main.cpp and click Finish.

Main CPP

All you need to write is the following code. It’s kind of like a boiler-plate code to start running the tests and reporting the results.

#include "CppUnitLite/TestHarness.h"
int main()
     TestResult tr;
     return 0;

At this moment there isn’t any tests to run, so we need to write some very simple tests just to show how things work. We will create a new source file and we will name it tests.cpp. In this newly created file we will write some tests, some of them are intended to fail just to show how CppUnitLite reports a test failure. Notice that CppUnitLite used predefined macros to enable us to write these simple unit tests easily. Copy and paste the following code into tests.cpp.

#include "CppUnitLite/TestHarness.h"
TEST(EqualitySuccess, EqualityGroup)
     int a = 5;
     CHECK(a == 5);
TEST(EqualityFailure, EqualityGroup)
     int a = 6;
     CHECK(a == 5);
TEST(GreaterSuccess, GreaterGroup)
     int a = 50;
     CHECK(a > 30);
TEST(GreaterFailure, GreaterGroup)
     int a = 50;
     CHECK(a > 100);

For any test you write, First you’ll need to include the TestHarness.h header file, which includes all of the others for you. Next you’ll need to use the TEST macro. the TEST macro takes two arguments, the first is the test name, the second is the test group. This is useful when you want to create multiple tests that belong to a single group. As you can see above I have to test groups, each of which has two tests, one that is intended to succeed, and the other is intended to fail.

I’m using the CHECK macro for all of my tests above, but you have others too that you can use such as CHECK_EQUAL, LONGS_EQUAL, .. etc. They’re defined in the header file Test.h.

Now we need to build and run those tests to see the result. But WAIT!! If you try to build now, you’ll fail as the linker doesn’t know how to link to the library file. You must specify that yourself.

Right-click the project name and select Properties. From the Properties window, go to C/C++ Build > Settings. From the Tool Settings tab, under GCC C++ Linker > Libraries, you’ll need to do two things.


You’ll need to add  the library search path. Click on the Add… button next to Library Search Path (-L) and click on the Workspace button, and select the folder where we imported the library file. click Ok, and then Ok again.

Linker Search Path

Next you’ll need to specify the name of the library. From the same window click on the Add… button next to Libraries (-l) and type CppUnitLib. Remember our library file is name libCppUnitLite.a, but GCC C++ Linker doesn’t need the lib or .a parts of the name. So if you named your library libMonkey.a, just type Monkey when you add the library :). Click Ok and then Ok again to exit the project Properties window.

Linker Library

Now everything is ready to build and run. Build the project and run it as a C++ Application, and see the output on the console window. You’ll see that it reports the two intentional failures, what conditions that failed, in which files they are, and in which lines as well.


That’s it! As you can see it’s quite easy and simple to work with CppUnitLite. Thanks everyone! Happy unit testing.